AWS Interview Question and Answer

Top Answers to AWS Interview Questions

1. Compare between AWS and OpenStack.

Criteria

AWS

OpenStack

License

Amazon proprietary

Open source

Operating system

Whatever the cloud administrator provides

Whatever AMIs provided by AWS

Performing repeatable operations

Through templates

Through text files

2. What is AWS?

AWS (Amazon Web Services) is a platform to provide secure cloud services, database storage, offerings to compute power, content delivery, and other services to help business level and develop.

3. What is the importance of buffer in Amazon Web Services?

An Elastic Load Balancer ensures that the incoming traffic is distributed optimally across various AWS instances.  A buffer will synchronize different components and makes the arrangement additionally elastic to a burst of load or traffic. The components are prone to work in an unstable way of receiving and processing requests. The buffer creates an equilibrium linking various apparatus and crafts them work at an identical rate to supply more rapid services.

4. How are Spot Instance, On-demand Instance, and Reserved Instance different from one another?

Both Spot Instance and On-demand Instance are models for pricing.

Spot Instance

On-demand Instance

With Spot Instance, customers can purchase compute capacity with no upfront commitment at all.

With On-demand Instance, users can launch instances at any time based on the demand.

Spot Instances are spare Amazon instances that you can bid for.

On-demand Instances are suitable for high-availability needs of applications.

When the bidding price exceeds the spot price, the instance is automatically launched, and the spot price fluctuates based on supply and demand for instances.

On-demand Instances are launched by users only with the pay-as-you-go model.

When the bidding price is less than the spot price, the instance is immediately taken away by Amazon.

On-demand Instances will remain persistent without any automatic termination from Amazon.

Spot Instances are charged on an hourly basis.

On-demand Instances are charged on a per-second basis

 

5. Your organization has decided to have all their workload on the public cloud. But, due to certain security concerns, your organization decides to distribute some of the workload on private servers. You are asked to suggest a cloud architecture for your organization. What will be your suggestion?

A hybrid cloud. The hybrid cloud architecture is where an organization can use the public cloud for shared resources and the private cloud for its confidential workloads.

6. The data on the root volumes of store-backed and EBS-backed instances get deleted by default when they are terminated. If you want to prevent that from happening, which instance would you use?

EBS-backed instances. EBS-backed instances use EBS volume as their root volume. EBS volume consists of virtual drives that can be easily backed up and duplicated by snapshots. The biggest advantage of EBS-backed volumes is that the data can be configured to be stored for later retrieval even if the virtual machine or the instances are shut down.

7. Which one of the storage solutions offered by AWS would you use if you need extremely low pricing and data archiving?

Amazon Glacier. AWS Glacier is an extremely low-cost storage service offered by Amazon that is used for data archiving and backup purposes. The longer you store data in Glacier, the lesser it will cost you.

8. You have connected four instances to ELB. To automatically terminate your unhealthy instances and replace them with new ones, which functionality would you use?

Auto-scaling groups

9. How will you configure an Amazon S3 bucket to serve static assets for your public web application?

By configuring the bucket policy to provide public read access to all object

10. Your organization wants to send and receive compliance emails to its clients using its own email address and domain. What service would you suggest for achieving the same in an easy and cost-effective way?

Amazon Simple Email Service (Amazon SES), which is a cloud-based email sending service, can be used for this purpose.

11. Can you launch Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) instances with predetermined private IP addresses? If yes, then with which Amazon service it is possible?

Yes. It is possible by using VPC (Virtual Private Cloud).

12. Why do we make subnets?

Creating subnets means dividing a large network into smaller ones. These subnets can be created for several reasons. For example, creating and using subnets can help reduce congestion by making sure that the traffic destined for a subnet stays in that subnet. This helps in efficiently routing the traffic coming to the network that reduces the network’s load.

13. If you launched a standby RDS, will it be launched in the same availability zone as your primary?

No, standby instances are automatically launched in different availability zones than the primary, making them physically independent infrastructures. This is because the whole purpose of standby instances is to prevent infrastructure failure. So, in case the primary goes down, the standby instance will help recover all of the data.

14. Which of the following is a global Content Delivery Network service that securely delivers data to users with low latency and high transfer speed.

Amazon Cloud Front

15. Which Amazon solution will you use if you want to accelerate moving petabytes of data in and out of AWS, using storage devices that are designed to be secure for data transfer?

Amazon Snowball. AWS Snowball is the data transport solution for large amounts of data that need to be moved into and out of AWS using physical storage devices.

16. If you are running your DB instance as Multi-AZ deployment, can you use standby DB instances along with your primary DB instance?

No, the standby DB instance cannot be used along with the primary DB instances since the standby DB instances are supposed to be used only if the primary instance goes down.

17. Your organization is developing a new multi-tier web application in AWS. Being a fairly new and small organization, there’s limited staff. But, the organization requires high availability. This new application comprises complex queries and table joins. Which Amazon service will be the best solution for your organization’s requirements?

Dynamo-DB will be the right choice here since it is designed to be highly scalable, more than RDS or any other relational database services.

18. Your organization is using Dynamo-DB for its application. This application collects data from its users every 10 minutes and stores it in DynamoDB. Then every day, after a particular time interval, the data (respective to each user) is extracted from Dynamo DB and sent to S3. Then, the application visualizes this data to the users. You are asked to propose a solution to help optimize the backend of the application for latency at lower cost. What would you recommend?

ElastiCache. Amazon ElastiCache is a caching solution offered by Amazon. It can be used to store a cached version of the application in a region closer to users so that when requests are made by the users the cached version of the application can respond, and hence latency will be reduced.

19. You accidently stopped an EC2 instance in a VPC with an associated Elastic IP. If you start the instance again, what will be the result?

The data stored on the instance will be lost. Elastic IP is disassociated from the instance only if the instance is terminated.

20. Your organization has around 50 IAM users. Now, it wants to introduce a new policy that will affect the access permissions of an IAM user. How can it implement this without having to apply the policy at the individual user level?

It is possible using IAM groups, by adding users in the groups as per their roles and by simply applying the policy to the groups.

21. I created a web application with auto scaling. I observed that the traffic on my application is the highest on Wednesdays and Fridays between 9 AM and 7 PM. What would be the best solution for me to handle the scaling?

Configure a policy in auto scaling to scale as per the predictable traffic patterns.

22. How would you handle a situation where the relational database engine crashes often whenever the traffic to your RDS instances increases, given that the replica of RDS instance is not promoted as the master instance?

A bigger RDS instance type needs to be opted for handling large amounts of traffic, creating manual or automated snapshots to recover data in case the RDS instance goes down.

23. Is there a way to upload a file that is greater than 100 megabytes in Amazon S3?

Yes, it is possible by using multipart upload utility from AWS. With multipart upload utility, larger files can be uploaded in multiple parts that are uploaded independently. You can also decrease upload time by uploading these parts in parallel. After the upload is done, the parts will be merged into a single object or file to create the original file from which the parts were created.

24. Suppose, you hosted an application on AWS that lets the users render images and do some general computing. Which of the below listed services can you use to route the incoming user traffic?

·         Classic Load Balancer

·         Application Load Balancer

·         Network Load balancer

Application Load Balancer: It supports path-based routing of the traffic and hence helps in enhancing the performance of the application structured as smaller services. Using application load balancer, the traffic can be routed based on the requests made. In this case scenario, the traffic where requests are made for rendering images can be directed to the servers only deployed for rendering images and the traffic where the requests are made for computing can be directed to the servers deployed only for general computing purposes.

25. You have an application running on your Amazon EC2 instance. You want to reduce the load on your instance as soon as the CPU utilization reaches 100 percent. How will you do that?

It can be done by creating an auto scaling group to deploy more instances when the CPU utilization exceeds 100 percent and distributing traffic among instances by creating a load balancer and registering the Amazon EC2 instances with it.

26. What would I have to do if I want to access Amazon Simple Storage buckets and use the information for access audits?

AWS Cloud Trail can be used in this case as it is designed for logging and tracking API calls, and it has also been made available for storage solutions.

 

27. I created a key in North Virginia region to encrypt my data in Oregon region. I also added three users to the key and an external AWS account. Then, to encrypt an object in S3, when I tried to use the same key, it was not listed. Where did I go wrong?

The data and the key should be in the same region. That is, the data that has to be encrypted should be in the same region as the one in which the key was created. In this case, the data is in Oregon region, whereas the key is created in North Virginia region.

28. Suppose, I created a subnet and launched an EC2 instance in the subnet with default settings. Which of the following options will be ready to use on the EC2 instance as soon as it is launched?

·         Elastic IP

·         Private IP

·         Public IP

·         Internet Gateway

Private IP. Private IP is automatically assigned to the instance as soon as it is launched. While elastic IP has to be set manually, Public IP needs an Internet Gateway which again has to be created since it’s a new VPC.

29. Your organization has four instances for production and another four for testing. You are asked to set up a group of IAM users that can only access the four production instances and not the other four testing instances. How will you achieve this?

We can achieve this by defining tags on the test and production instances and then adding a condition to the IAM policy that allows access to specific tags.

 

30. What is the maximum number of S3 buckets you can create?

·         50

·         20

·         70

·         100

100

31. Your organization wants to monitor the read and write IOPS for its AWS MySQL RDS instance and then send real-time alerts to its internal operations team. Which service offered by Amazon can help your organization achieve this scenario?

Amazon Cloud Watch would help us achieve this. Since Amazon Cloud Watch is a monitoring tool offered by Amazon, it’s the right service to use in the above-mentioned scenario.

32. Which of the following services can be used if you want to capture client connection information from your load balancer at a particular time interval?

·         Enabling access logs on your load balancer

·         Enabling Cloud Trail for your load balancer

·         Enabling Cloud Watch metrics for your load balancer

Enabling Cloud Trail for your load balancer. AWS Cloud Trail is an inexpensive log monitoring solution provided by Amazon. It can provide logging information for load balancer or any other AWS resources. The provided information can further be used for analysis.

33. You have created a VPC with private and public subnets. In what kind of subnet would you launch the database servers?

Database servers should be ideally launched in private subnets. Private subnets are ideal for the backend services and databases of all applications since they are not meant to be accessed by the users of the applications, and private subnets are not routable from the Internet.

34. Is it possible to switch from an Instance-backed root volume to an EBS-backed root volume at any time?

No, it is not possible.

35. How can you save the data on root volume on an EBS-backed machine?

By overriding the terminate option

36. When should you use the classic load balancer and the application load balancer?

The classic load balancer is used for simple load balancing of traffic across multiple EC2 instances. While, the application load balancing is used for more intelligent load balancing, based on the multi-tier architecture or container-based architecture of the application. Application load balancing is mostly used when there is a need to route traffic to multiple services.

37. Can you change the instance type of the instances that are running in your application tier and are also using auto scaling? If yes, then how? (Choose one of the following)

·         Yes, by modifying auto scaling launch configuration

·         Yes, by modifying auto scaling tags configuration

·         Yes, by modifying auto scaling policy configuration

·         No, it cannot be changed

Yes, the instance type of such instances can be changed by modifying auto scaling launch configuration. The tags configuration is used to add metadata to the instances.

38. Can you name the additional network interface that can be created and attached to your Amazon EC2 instance launched in your VPC?

Elastic Network Interface

39. Out of the following options, where does the user specify the maximum number of instances with the auto scaling commands?

·         Auto scaling policy configuration

·         Auto scaling group

·         Auto scaling tags configuration

·         Auto scaling launch configuration

Auto scaling launch configuration

 

40. Which service provided by AWS can you use to transfer objects from your data center, when you are using Amazon Cloud Front?

Amazon Direct Connect. It is a network service that acts as an alternative to using the Internet to connect customers in on premise sites with AWS.

41. You have deployed multiple EC2 instances across multiple availability zones to run your website. You have also deployed a Multi-AZ RDS MySQL Extra Large DB Instance. The site performs a high number of small read and write operations per second. After some time, you observed that there is read contention on RDS MySQL. What would be your approach to resolve the contention and optimize your website?

We can deploy ElastiCache in memory cache running in every availability zone. This will help in creating a cached version of the website for faster access in each availability zone. We can also add RDS MySQL read replica in each availability zone that can help in efficient and better performance for read operations. So, there will not be any increased workload on RDS MySQL instance, hence resolving the contention issue.

42. Your company wants you to propose a solution so that the company’s data center can be connected to Amazon cloud network. What would be your proposal?

The data center can be connected to Amazon cloud network by establishing a virtual private network (VPN) between the VPC and the data center. Virtual private network lets you establish a secure pathway or tunnel from your premise or device to AWS global network.

43. Which of the following Amazon Services would you choose if you want complex querying capabilities but not a whole data warehouse?

·         RDS

·         Redshift

·         ElastiCache

·         Dynamo DB

Amazon RDS

44. You want to modify the security group rules while it is being used by multiple EC2 instances. Will you be able to do that? If yes, will the new rules be implemented on all previously running EC2 instances that were using that security group?

Yes, the security group that is being used by multiple EC2 instances can be modified. The changes will be implemented immediately and be applied to all the previously running EC2 instances without restarting the instances

45. Which one of the following is a structured data store that supports indexing and data queries to both EC2 and S3?

·         Dynamo DB

·         MySQL

·         Aurora

·         Simple DB

Simple DB

46. How many total VPCs per account/region and subnets per VPC can you have?

·         4, 100

·         7, 40

·         5, 200

·         3, 150

5, 200

47. Which service offered by Amazon will you choose if you want to collect and process e-commerce data for near real-time analysis? (Choose any two)

·         Dynamo DB

·         Redshift

·         Aurora

·         Simple DB

Dynamo DB. Dynamo DB is a fully managed NoSQL database service that can be fed any type of unstructured data. Hence, Dynamo DB is the most apt choice for collecting data from e-commerce websites.

For near real-time analysis, we can use Amazon Redshift.

48. If in Cloud Front the content is not present at an edge location, what will happen when a request is made for that content?

Cloud Front will deliver the content directly from the origin server. It will also store the content in the cache of the edge location where the content was missing.

49. Can you change the private IP address of an EC2 instance while it is in running or in a stopped state?

No, it cannot be changed. When an EC2 instance is launched, a private IP address is assigned to that instance at the boot time. This private IP address is attached to the instance for its entire lifetime and can never be changed.

50. Which of the following options will you use if you have to move data over long distances using the Internet, from instances that are spread across countries to your Amazon S3 bucket?

·         Amazon Cloud Front

·         Amazon Transfer Acceleration

·         Amazon Snowball

·         Amazon Glacier

Amazon Transfer Acceleration. It throttles the data transfer up to 300 percent using optimized network paths and Amazon Content Delivery Network. Snowball cannot be used here as this service does not support cross-region data transfer.

51. Which of the following services is a data storage system that also has REST API interface and uses secure HMAC-SHA1 authentication keys?

·         Amazon Elastic Block Store

·         Amazon Snapshot

·         Amazon S3

Amazon S3. It gets various requests from applications, and it has to identify which requests are to be allowed and which to be denied. Amazon S3 REST API uses a custom HTTP scheme based on a keyed HMAC for authentication of requests.

52. What kind of IP address can you use for your customer gateway (CGW) address?

We can use the Internet routable IP address, which is a public IP address of your NAT device.

53. Which of the following is not an option in security groups?

·         List of users

·         Posts

·         IP addresses

·         List of protocols

List of users

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. Define and explain the three basic types of cloud services and the AWS products that are built based on them?

The three basic types of cloud services are:

·         Computing

·         Storage

·         Networking

Here are some of the AWS products that are built based on the three cloud service types:

Computing - These include EC2, Elastic Beanstalk, Lambda, Auto-Scaling, and light sat.

Storage - These include S3, Glacier, Elastic Block Storage, and Elastic File System.

Networking - These include VPC, Amazon Cloud Front, Route53

2. What is the relation between the Availability Zone and Region?

AWS regions are separate geographical areas, like the US-West 1 (North California) and Asia South (Mumbai). On the other hand, availability zones are the areas that are present inside the regions. These are generally isolated zones that can replicate themselves whenever required.

aws region

3. What is auto-scaling?

Auto-scaling is a function that allows you to provision and launch new instances whenever there is a demand. It allows you to automatically increase or decrease resource capacity in relation to the demand.

4. What is geo-targeting in Cloud Front?

Geo-Targeting is a concept where businesses can show personalized content to their audience based on their geographic location without changing the URL. This helps you create customized content for the audience of a specific geographical area, keeping their needs in the forefront.

5. What are the steps involved in a Cloud Formation Solution?

Here are the steps involved in a Cloud Formation solution:

cloud formation

1.       Create or use an existing Cloud Formation template using JSON or YAML format.

2.       Save the code in an S3 bucket, which serves as a repository for the code.

3.       Use AWS Cloud Formation to call the bucket and create a stack on your template. 

4.       Cloud Formation reads the file and understands the services that are called, their order, the relationship between the services, and provisions the services one after the other.

6. How do you upgrade or downgrade a system with near-zero downtime?

You can upgrade or downgrade a system with near-zero downtime using the following steps of migration:

·         Open EC2 console

·         Choose Operating System AMI

·         Launch an instance with the new instance type

·         Install all the updates

·         Install applications

·         Test the instance to see if it’s working

·         If working, deploy the new instance and replace the older instance

·         Once it’s deployed, you can upgrade or downgrade the system with near-zero downtime.

 

7. What are the tools and techniques that you can use in AWS to identify if you are paying more than you should be, and how to correct it?

You can know that you are paying the correct amount for the resources that you are using by employing the following resources:

·         Check the Top Services Table

It is a dashboard in the cost management console that shows you the top five most used services. This will let you know how much money you are spending on the resources in question.

·         Cost Explorer

There are cost explorer services available which will help you to view and analyse your usage costs for the last 13 months. You can also get a cost forecast for the upcoming three months.

·         AWS Budgets

This allows you to plan a budget for the services. Also, it will enable you to check if the current plan meets your budget and the details of how you use the services.

·         Cost Allocation Tags

This helps in identifying the resource that has cost more in a particular month. It lets you organize your resources and cost allocation tags to keep track of your AWS costs.

8. Is there any other alternative tool to log into the cloud environment other than console?

These can help you log into the AWS resources are:

·         Putty

·         AWS CLI for Linux

·         AWS CLI for Windows

·         AWS CLI for Windows CMD

·         AWS SDK

·         Eclipse

9. What services can be used to create a centralized logging solution?

The essential services that you can use are Amazon Cloud Watch Logs, store them in Amazon S3, and then use Amazon Elastic Search to visualize them. You can use Amazon Kinesis Firehose to move the data from Amazon S3 to Amazon Elastic Search.

centralized logging

10. What are the native AWS Security logging capabilities?

Most of the AWS services have their logging options. Also, some of them have an account level logging, like in AWS Cloud Trail, AWS Config, and others. Let’s take a look at two services in specific:

AWS Cloud Trail

This is a service that provides a history of the AWS API calls for every account. It lets you perform security analysis, resource change tracking, and compliance auditing of your AWS environment as well. The best part about this service is that it enables you to configure it to send notifications via AWS SNS when new logs are delivered.

AWS Config 

This helps you understand the configuration changes that happen in your environment. This service provides an AWS inventory that includes configuration history, configuration change notification, and relationships between AWS resources. It can also be configured to send information via AWS SNS when new logs are delivered.

11. What is a DDoS attack, and what services can minimize them?

DDoS is a cyber-attack in which the perpetrator accesses a website and creates multiple sessions so that the other legitimate users cannot access the service. The native tools that can help you deny the DDoS attacks on your AWS services are:

·         AWS Shield

·         AWS WAF

·         Amazon Route53

·         Amazon Cloud Front

·         ELB

·         VPC

DDOS attack

12. You are trying to provide a service in a particular region, but you do not see the service in that region. Why is this happening, and how do you fix it?

Not all Amazon AWS services are available in all regions. When Amazon initially launches a new service, it doesn’t get immediately published in all the regions. They start small and then slowly expand to other regions. So, if you don’t see a specific service in your region, chances are the service hasn’t been published in your region yet. However, if you want to get the service that is not available, you can switch to the nearest region that provides the services.

13. How do you set up a system to monitor website metrics in real-time in AWS?

Amazon Cloud Watch helps you to monitor the application status of various AWS services and custom events. It helps you to monitor:

·         State changes in Amazon EC2

·         Auto-scaling lifecycle events

·         Scheduled events

·         AWS API calls

·         Console sign-in events

amazon cloud watch

14. What are the different types of virtualization in AWS, and what are the differences between them?

The three major types of virtualization in AWS are: 

·         Hardware Virtual Machine (HVM)

It is a fully virtualized hardware, where all the virtual machines act separate from each other. These virtual machines boot by executing a master boot record in the root block device of your image.

·         Para virtualization (PV)

Para virtualization-GRUB is the bootloader that boots the PV AMIs. The PV-GRUB chain loads the kernel specified in the menu.

·         Para virtualization on HVM

PV on HVM helps operating systems take advantage of storage and network I/O available through the host.

15. Name some of the AWS services that are not region-specific

AWS services that are not region-specific are:

·         IAM

·         Route 53

·         Web Application Firewall 

·         Cloud Front

16. What are the differences between NAT Gateways and NAT Instances?

While both NAT Gateways and NAT Instances serve the same function, they still have some key differences.

Differences

AWS Interview Questions for Amazon EC2

17. What is the difference between stopping and terminating an EC2 instance? 

While you may think that both stopping and terminating are the same, there is a difference. When you stop an EC2 instance, it performs a normal shutdown on the instance and moves to a stopped state. However, when you terminate the instance, it is transferred to a stopped state, and the EBS volumes attached to it are deleted and can never be recovered. 

18. What are the different types of EC2 instances based on their costs?

The three types of EC2 instances are:

·         On-demand Instance

It is cheap for a short time but not when taken for the long term

·         Spot Instance

It is less expensive than the on-demand instance and can be bought through bidding. 

·         Reserved Instance

If you are planning to use an instance for a year or more, then this is the right one for you.

19. How do you set up SSH agent forwarding so that you do not have to copy the key every time you log in?

Here’s how you accomplish this:

1.       Go to your Putty Configuration

2.       Go to the category SSH -> Auth

3.       Enable SSH agent forwarding to your instance

Putty configuration

20. What are Solaris and AIX operating systems? Are they available with AWS?

Solaris is an operating system that uses SPARC processor architecture, which is not supported by the public cloud currently. 

AIX is an operating system that runs only on Power CPU and not on Intel, which means that you cannot create AIX instances in EC2.

Since both the operating systems have their limitations, they are not currently available with AWS.

21. How do you configure Cloud Watch to recover an EC2 instance?

Here’s how you can configure them:

·         Create an Alarm using Amazon Cloud Watch

·         In the Alarm, go to Define Alarm -> Actions tab

·         Choose Recover this instance option

create alarm

22. What are the common types of AMI designs?

There are many types of AMIs, but some of the common AMIs are:

·         Fully Baked AMI

·         Just Enough Baked AMI (JeOS AMI)

·         Hybrid AMI

23. How can you recover/login to an EC2 instance for which you have lost the key?

Follow the steps provided below to recover an EC2 instance if you have lost the key:

1.       Verify that the EC2Config service is running

2.       Detach the root volume for the instance

3.       Attach the volume to a temporary instance

4.       Modify the configuration file

5.       Restart the original instance

24. What are some critical differences between AWS S3 and EBS?

Here are some differences between AWS S3 and EBS

feature differences

25. How do you allow a user to gain access to a specific bucket?

You need to follow the four steps provided below to allow access. They are:

1.       Categorize your instances

2.       Define how authorized users can manage specific servers.

3.       Lockdown your tags

4.       Attach your policies to IAM users

26. How can you monitor S3 cross-region replication to ensure consistency without actually checking the bucket?

Follow the flow diagram provided below to monitor S3 cross-region replication:

S3 cross region

AWS Interview Questions for VPC

27. VPC is not resolving the server through DNS. What might be the issue, and how can you fix it?

To fix this problem, you need to enable the DNS hostname resolution, so that the problem resolves itself.

28. How do you connect multiple sites to a VPC?

If you have multiple VPN connections, you can provide secure communication between sites using the AWS VPN Cloud Hub. Here’s a diagram that will show you how to connect various sites to a VPC:

customer gateway

29. Name and explain some security products and features available in VPC?

Here is a selection of security products and features:

·         Security groups - This acts as a firewall for the EC2 instances, controlling inbound and outbound traffic at the instance level.

·         Network access control lists - It acts as a firewall for the subnets, controlling inbound and outbound traffic at the subnet level.

·         Flow logs - These capture the inbound and outbound traffic from the network interfaces in your VPC.

30. How do you monitor Amazon VPC?

You can monitor VPC by using:

·         Cloud Watch and Cloud Watch logs

·         VPC Flow Logs

 

31. How can you add an existing instance to a new Auto Scaling group?

Here’s how you can add an existing instance to a new Auto Scaling group:

·         Open EC2 console

·         Select your instance under Instances

·         Choose Actions -> Instance Settings -> Attach to Auto Scaling Group

·         Select a new Auto Scaling group

·         Attach this group to the Instance

·         Edit the Instance if needed

·         Once done, you can successfully add the instance to a new Auto Scaling group

32. What are the factors to consider while migrating to Amazon Web Services?

Here are the factors to consider during AWS migration:

·         Operational Costs - These include the cost of infrastructure, ability to match demand and supply, transparency, and others.

·         Workforce Productivity 

·         Cost avoidance

·         Operational resilience

·         Business agility

33. What is RTO and RPO in AWS?

RTO or Recovery Time Objective is the maximum time your business or organization is willing to wait for a recovery to complete in the wake of an outage. On the other hand, RPO or Recovery Point Objective is the maximum amount of data loss your company is willing to accept as measured in time.

34. If you would like to transfer vast amounts of data, which is the best option among Snowball, Snowball Edge, and Snowmobile?

AWS Snowball is basically a data transport solution for moving high volumes of data into and out of a specified AWS region. On the other hand, AWS Snowball Edge adds additional computing functions apart from providing a data transport solution. The snowmobile is an Exabyte-scale migration service that allows you to transfer data up to 100 PB.

35. How is AWS Cloud Formation different from AWS Elastic Beanstalk?

Here are some differences between AWS Cloud Formation and AWS Elastic Beanstalk:

·         AWS Cloud Formation helps you provision and describe all of the infrastructure resources that are present in your cloud environment. On the other hand, AWS Elastic Beanstalk provides an environment that makes it easy to deploy and run applications in the cloud.

·         AWS Cloud Formation supports the infrastructure needs of various types of applications, like legacy applications and existing enterprise applications. On the other hand, AWS Elastic Beanstalk is combined with the developer tools to help you manage the lifecycle of your applications.

36. What are the elements of an AWS Cloud Formation template?

AWS Cloud Formation templates are YAML or JSON formatted text files that are comprised of five essential elements, they are:

·         Template parameters

·         Output values

·         Data tables

·         Resources

·         File format version

37. What happens when one of the resources in a stack cannot be created successfully?

If the resource in the stack cannot be created, then the Cloud Formation automatically rolls back and terminates all the resources that were created in the Cloud Formation template. This is a handy feature when you accidentally exceed your limit of Elastic IP addresses or don’t have access to an EC2 AMI.

AWS cloud formation

38. How can you automate EC2 backup using EBS?

Use the following steps in order to automate EC2 backup using EBS:

1.       Get the list of instances and connect to AWS through API to list the Amazon EBS volumes that are attached locally to the instance.

2.       List the snapshots of each volume, and assign a retention period of the snapshot. Later on, create a snapshot of each volume.

3.       Make sure to remove the snapshot if it is older than the retention period.

39. What is the difference between EBS and Instance Store?

EBS is a kind of permanent storage in which the data can be restored at a later point. When you save data in the EBS, it stays even after the lifetime of the EC2 instance. On the other hand, Instance Store is temporary storage that is physically attached to a host machine. With an Instance Store, you cannot detach one instance and attach it to another. Unlike in EBS, data in an Instance Store is lost if any instance is stopped or terminated.

40. Can you take a backup of EFS like EBS, and if yes, how?

Yes, you can use the EFS-to-EFS backup solution to recover from unintended changes or deletion in Amazon EFS. Follow these steps:

1.       Sign in to the AWS Management Console

2.       Click the launch EFS-to-EFS-restore button

3.       Use the region selector in the console navigation bar to select region

4.       Verify if you have chosen the right template on the Select Template page

5.       Assign a name to your solution stack

6.       Review the parameters for the template and modify them if necessary

41. How do you auto-delete old snapshots?

Here’s the procedure for auto-deleting old snapshots:

·         As per procedure and best practices, take snapshots of the EBS volumes on Amazon S3.

·         Use AWS Ops Automaton to handle all the snapshots automatically.

·         This allows you to create, copy, and delete Amazon EBS snapshots.

S3

42. What are the different types of load balancers in AWS?

There are three types of load balancers that are supported by Elastic Load Balancing:

1.       Application Load Balancer

2.       Network Load Balancer

3.       Classic Load Balancer

43. What are the different uses of the various load balancers in AWS Elastic Load Balancing?

Application Load Balancer

Used if you need flexible application management and TLS termination.

Network Load Balancer

Used if you require extreme performance and static IPs for your applications.

Classic Load Balancer

Used if your application is built within the EC2 Classic network

44. How can you use AWS WAF in monitoring your AWS applications?

AWS WAF or AWS Web Application Firewall protects your web applications from web exploitations. It helps you control the traffic flow to your applications. With WAF, you can also create custom rules that block common attack patterns. It can be used for three cases: allow all requests, prevent all requests, and count all requests for a new policy.

45. What are the different AWS IAM categories that you can control?

Using AWS IAM, you can do the following:

·         Create and manage IAM users

·         Create and manage IAM groups

·         Manage the security credentials of the users

·         Create and manage policies to grant access to AWS services and resources

46. What are the policies that you can set for your users’ passwords?

Here are some of the policies that you can set:

·         You can set a minimum length of the password, or you can ask the users to add at least one number or special characters in it.

·         You can assign requirements of particular character types, including uppercase letters, lowercase letters, numbers, and non-alphanumeric characters.

·         You can enforce automatic password expiration, prevent reuse of old passwords, and request for a password reset upon their next AWS sign in.

·         You can have the AWS users contact an account administrator when the user has allowed the password to expire. 

47. What is the difference between an IAM role and an IAM user?

The two key differences between the IAM role and IAM user are:

·         An IAM role is an IAM entity that defines a set of permissions for making AWS service requests, while an IAM user has permanent long-term credentials and is used to interact with the AWS services directly.  

·         In the IAM role, trusted entities, like IAM users, applications, or an AWS service, assume roles whereas the IAM user has full access to all the AWS IAM functionalities.

48. What are the managed policies in AWS IAM?

There are two types of managed policies; one that is managed by you and one that is managed by AWS. They are IAM resources that express permissions using IAM policy language. You can create, edit, and manage them separately from the IAM users, groups, and roles to which they are attached.

49. Can you give an example of an IAM policy and a policy summary?

Here’s an example of an IAM policy to grant access to add, update, and delete objects from a specific folder.

IAM policy

Here’s the example of a policy summary:

policy summary

50. How does AWS IAM help your business?

IAM enables to:

·         Manage IAM users and their access - AWS IAM provides secure resource access to multiple users

·         Manage access for federated users – AWS allows you to provide secure access to resources in your AWS account to your employees and applications without creating IAM roles

51. What is the difference between Latency Based Routing and Geo DNS?

The Geo Based DNS routing takes decisions based on the geographic location of the request. Whereas, the Latency Based Routing utilizes latency measurements between networks and AWS data centers. Latency Based Routing is used when you want to give your customers the lowest latency possible. On the other hand, Geo Based routing is used when you want to direct the customer to different websites based on the country or region they are browsing from. 

52. What is the difference between a Domain and a Hosted Zone?

Domain

A domain is a collection of data describing a self-contained administrative and technical unit. For example, www.simplilearn.com is a domain and a general DNS concept.

Hosted zone

A hosted zone is a container that holds information about how you want to route traffic on the internet for a specific domain. For example, lms.simplilearn.com is a hosted zone.

53. How does Amazon Route 53 provide high availability and low latency?

Here’s how Amazon Route 53 provides the resources in question:

Globally Distributed Servers

Amazon is a global service and consequently has DNS services globally. Any customer creating a query from any part of the world gets to reach a DNS server local to them that provides low latency. 

Dependency

Route 53 provides a high level of dependability required by critical applications

Optimal Locations

Route 53 uses a global any cast network to answer queries from the optimal position automatically. 

54. How does AWS Config work with AWS Cloud Trail?

AWS Cloud Trail records user API activity on your account and allows you to access information about the activity. Using Cloud Trail, you can get full details about API actions such as the identity of the caller, time of the call, request parameters, and response elements. On the other hand, AWS Config records point-in-time configuration details for your AWS resources as Configuration Items (CIs). 

You can use a CI to ascertain what your AWS resource looks like at any given point in time. Whereas, by using Cloud Trail, you can quickly answer who made an API call to modify the resource. You can also use Cloud Trail to detect if a security group was incorrectly configured.

55. Can AWS Config aggregate data across different AWS accounts?

Yes, you can set up AWS Config to deliver configuration updates from different accounts to one S3 bucket, once the appropriate IAM policies are applied to the S3 bucket.

Check out the video given below for a detailed explanation of the most frequently asked AWS Interview Questions and Answers -

AWS Interview Questions for Database

56. How are reserved instances different from on-demand DB instances?

Reserved instances and on-demand instances are the same when it comes to function. They only differ in how they are billed.

Reserved instances are purchased as one-year or three-year reservations, and in return, you get very low hourly based pricing when compared to the on-demand cases that are billed on an hourly basis.

57. Which type of scaling would you recommend for RDS and why?

There are two types of scaling - vertical scaling and horizontal scaling. Vertical scaling lets you vertically scale up your master database with the press of a button. A database can only be scaled vertically, and there are 18 different instances in which you can resize the RDS. On the other hand, horizontal scaling is good for replicas. These are read-only replicas that can only be done through Amazon Aurora.

58. What is a maintenance window in Amazon RDS? Will your DB instance be available during maintenance events?

RDS maintenance window lets you decide when DB instance modifications, database engine version upgrades, and software patching have to occur. The automatic scheduling is done only for patches that are related to security and durability. By default, there is a 30-minute value assigned as the maintenance window and the DB instance will still be available during these events though you might observe a minimal effect on performance.

59. What are the consistency models in Dynamo DB?

There are two consistency models In Dynamo DB. First, there is the Eventual Consistency Model, which maximizes your read throughput. However, it might not reflect the results of a recently completed write. Fortunately, all the copies of data usually reach consistency within a second. The second model is called the Strong Consistency Model. This model has a delay in writing the data, but it guarantees that you will always see the updated data every time you read it. 

60. What type of query functionality does Dynamo DB support?

Dynamo DB supports GET/PUT operations by using a user-defined primary key. It provides flexible querying by letting you query on non-primary vital attributes using global secondary indexes and local secondary indexes.

1. Suppose you are a game designer and want to develop a game with single-digit millisecond latency, which of the following database services would you use?

Amazon Dynamo DB

2. If you need to perform real-time monitoring of AWS services and get actionable insights, which services would you use?

Amazon Cloud Watch

3. As a web developer, you are developing an app, targeted primarily for the mobile platform. Which of the following lets you add user sign-up, sign-in, and access control to your web and mobile apps quickly and easily?

Amazon Cognito

4. You are a Machine Learning Engineer who is on the lookout for a solution that will discover sensitive information that your enterprise stores in AWS and then use NLP to classify the data and provide business-related insights. Which among the services would you choose?

AWS Macie

5. You are the system administrator in your company, which is running most of its infrastructure on AWS. You are required to track your users and keep tabs on how they are being authenticated. You wish to create and manage AWS users and use permissions to allow and deny their access to AWS resources. Which of the following services suits you best?

AWS IAM

6. Which service do you use if you want to allocate various private and public IP addresses to make them communicate with the internet and other instances?

Amazon VPC

7. This service provides you with cost-efficient and resizable capacity while automating time-consuming administration tasks

Amazon Relational Database Service

8. Which of the following is a means for accessing human researchers or consultants to help solve problems on a contractual or temporary basis?

Amazon Mechanical Turk

9. This service is used to make it easy to deploy, manage, and scale containerized applications using Kubernetes on AWS. Which of the following is this AWS service?

Amazon Elastic Container Service

10. This service lets you run code without provisioning or managing servers. Select the correct service from the below options

AWS Lambda

11. As an AWS Developer, using this pay-per-use service, you can send, store, and receive messages between software components. Which of the following is it?

Amazon Simple Queue Service

12. Which service do you use if you would like to host real-time audio and video conferencing application on AWS, this service provides you with a secure and easy-to-use application?

Amazon Chime

1. Suppose you are a game designer and want to develop a game with single-digit millisecond latency, which of the following database services would you use?

1.       Amazon RDS

2.       Amazon Neptune

3.       Amazon Snowball

4.       Amazon Dynamo DB

2. If you need to perform real-time monitoring of AWS services and get actionable insights, which services would you use?

1.       Amazon Firewall Manager

2.       Amazon Guard Duty

3.       Amazon Cloud Watch

4.       Amazon EBS

3. As a web developer, you are developing an app, targeted especially for the mobile platform. Which of the following lets you add user sign-up, sign-in, and access control to your web and mobile apps quickly and easily?

1.       AWS Shield

2.       AWS Macie

3.       AWS Inspector

4.       Amazon Cognito

4. You are a Machine Learning Engineer who is on the lookout for a solution that will discover sensitive information that your enterprise stores in AWS and then use NLP to classify the data and provide business-related insights. Which among the services would you choose?

1.       AWS Firewall Manager

2.       AWS IAM

3.       AWS Macie

4.       AWS CloudHSM

5. You are the system administrator in your company, which is running most of its infrastructure on AWS. You are required to track your users and keep tabs on how they are being authenticated. You wish to create and manage AWS users and use permissions to allow and deny their access to AWS resources. Which of the following services suits you best?

1.       AWS Firewall Manager

2.       AWS Shield

3.       Amazon API Gateway

4.       AWS IAM

6. Which service do you use if you want to allocate various private and public IP addresses in order to make them communicate with the internet and other instances?

1.       Amazon Route 53

2.       Amazon VPC

3.       Amazon API Gateway

4.       Amazon Cloud Front

7. This service provides you with cost-efficient and resizable capacity while automating time-consuming administration tasks

1.       Amazon Relational Database Service

2.       Amazon ElastiCache

3.       Amazon VPC

4.       Amazon Glacier

8. Which of the following is a means for accessing human researchers or consultants to help solve problems on a contractual or temporary basis?

1.       Amazon Mechanical Turk

2.       Amazon Elastic MapReduce

3.       Amazon DevPay

4.       Multi-Factor Authentication

9. This service is used to make it easy to deploy, manage, and scale containerized applications using Kubernetes on AWS. Which of the following is this AWS service?

1.       Amazon Elastic Container Service

2.       AWS Batch

3.       AWS Elastic Beanstalk

4.       Amazon LightSail

10. This service lets you run code without provisioning or managing servers. Select the correct service from the below options

1.       Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling

2.       AWS Lambda

3.       AWS Batch

4.       Amazon Inspector

11. As an AWS Developer, using this pay-per-use service, you can send, store and receive messages between software components. Which of the following is it?

1.       AWS Step Functions

2.       Amazon MQ

3.       Amazon Simple Queue Service

4.       Amazon Simple Notification Service

12. Which service do you use if you would like to host real-time audio and video conferencing application on AWS, this service provides you with a secure and easy-to-use application?

1.       Amazon Chime

2.       Amazon Workspaces

3.       Amazon MQ

4.       Amazon AppStream

13. As your company's AWS Solutions Architect, you are in charge of designing thousands of similar individual jobs. Which of the following services best meets your requirements?

1.       AWS EC2 Auto Scaling

2.       AWS Snowball

3.       AWS Fargate

4.       AWS Batch

14. You are a Machine Learning engineer and you are looking for a service that helps you build and train Machine Learning models in AWS. Which among the following are we referring to?

1.       Amazon Sage Maker

2.       AWS Deep Lens

3.       Amazon Comprehend

4.       Device Farm

15. Imagine that you are working for your company's IT team. You are assigned to adjusting the capacity of AWS resources based on the incoming application and network traffic. How would you do it?

1.       Amazon VPC

2.       AWS IAM

3.       Amazon Inspector

4.       Amazon Elastic Load Balancing

16. This cross-platform video game development engine that supports PC, Xbox, PlayStation, iOS, and Android platforms allows developers to build and host their games on Amazon's servers.

1.       Amazon Game Lift

2.       AWS Green grass

3.       Amazon Lumberyard

4.       Amazon Sumerian

17. You are the Project Manager of your company's Cloud Architects team. You are required to visualize, understand and manage your AWS costs and usage over time. Which of the following services works best?

1.       AWS Budgets

2.       AWS Cost Explorer

3.       Amazon Work Mail

4.       Amazon Connect

18. You are the chief Cloud Architect at your company. How can you automatically monitor and adjust computer resources to ensure maximum performance and efficiency of all scalable resources?

1.       AWS Cloud Formation 

2.       AWS Aurora

3.       AWS Auto Scaling

4.       Amazon API Gateway

19. as a database administrator. You will employ a service that is used to set up and manage databases such as MySQL, Maria DB, and PostgreSQL. Which service are we referring to?

1.       Amazon Aurora

2.       AWS RDS

3.       Amazon ElastiCache

4.       AWS Database Migration Service

20. A part of your marketing work requires you to push messages onto Google, Facebook, Windows, and Apple through APIs or AWS Management Console. Which of the following services do you use?

1.       AWS Cloud Trail

2.       AWS Config

3.       Amazon Chime

4.       AWS Simple Notification Service


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